“But what do you do?”

“But what do you do?” ~ when I hear the question I have to quickly decide if I give the full speech, a one minute version of the speech, or just a few words.

Most people within my professional circle know me as a “preschool teacher”. A kind, warm and fuzzy teacher who ties shoes, wipes off messy faces, sings songs and teaches about manners, nature, art, and social-emotional skills. My last eight years in the classroom were spent in preschool, and I came to realize the power and fundamental role that early childhood has on both the academic success in school and lifelong impact for children who have access to high quality early childhood programs.

When I took on a new role of entrepreneur and creating a business as an educational consultant, my friends didn’t quite know how the presumably soft skills of preschool teacher would translate into a business model. Surprisingly, learning how to take care of young children prepared me well for working with a wide range of groups because nearly all people find it refreshing to work with someone who is both kind and a go-getter!

Back to the question…”But what do you do?”

In a few words ~ I am an educational consultant.

One minute speech ~ I am an Early Childhood Educator and I work with schools, child care centers, businesses and organizations to develop programs that support a ‘holistic view of childhood”. With my almost twenty years of working with families and children I know the silos and obstacles that exist within our system and I can help facilitate ways to improve our programs to have a greater impact on children.

And for those who really want to dive into more of the details….I typed up an even longer description!

April Zajko, M.Ed. is the owner of April’s Teaching Tree, an educational consulting business with a mission of “growing a holistic view of childhood”. April has been leading professional development in education since 2003 and is licensed in Vermont as both as an Early Childhood Educator and Reading Specialist. April has built a solid reputation for providing relevant, engaging, and motivating programs that take theory and put it into actionable steps to improve outcomes for children.  Over the last school year, April has led professional development in Vermont for child care centers, regional Head Start teams, Starting Points networks, and private programs. April has partnered with several nonprofit organizations who are working toward improving educational programs for young children, including the Vermont Community Engagement Lab and the STEM Lab at the Fairbanks Museum and Planetarium. Over the last eight years, April has led trainings at the Vermont Association for the Education of Young Children fall conference and developed master level trainings in science. Since 2016, April has taught early childhood courses for the Community College of Vermont in Saint Johnsbury, and has helped many new professionals get started on their career path in early childhood education.

April is committed to workforce development and knows that as we empower early care providers we strengthen our system and practices of care for ALL families.

April is passionate about advocating for nature-based learning and puts creativity and PLAY at the center of the curriculum.

April believes that ALL children thrive when we design inclusive programs that offer supportive and warm environments that cultivate nurturing  and responsive relationships.

April’s Teaching Tree gives voice to the vision and mission of “growing a holistic view of childhood”. To read my weekly blog post subscribe at http://www.aprilsteachingtree.com

*Help me spread the word by sharing this post *

If your program or organization wants to create custom professional development or partner on projects for the next school year, please email April directly at aprilzajko@gmail.com

If you are an individual and want to sign up for a course of program led by April Zajko, visit this link which will be updated as programs or classes are added ~ https://aprilsteachingtree.com/upcoming-trainings/

If you would like to be part of April’s ongoing women’s leadership group called P.O.W.E.R.~Path of Wellness, Environment, and Relationship ~ send an email to get more information ~ aprilzajko@gmail.com

“You may never know what results come of your actions, but if you do nothing, there will be no results.” ~Gandhi

Educational Journey ~ First Job in Education

 

Sharing our story and our journey of how we got to where we are is a powerful way of connecting to each other. When we look at our resume we know which of the jobs had the greatest impact on the direction of our lives. Often it’s the first jobs that we have that have the greatest impact.

My very first job in education was at Minnick Education Center in Roanoke, Virginia. It was private day school for students who were not meeting with success in traditional public schools. The program that I worked in was alternative high school program with a small group of mostly African American young men who were at risk of dropping out of school or going into juvenile detention centers. The commonality between the group were a diagnosis of Emotionally Disturbed, disruptive behaviors, and extremely low literacy levels. There was no option for these young men to return to their home schools because of their previous behaviors, and therefore there was pressure to make sure they met with success with us so they could either graduate with an alternate diploma or earn their G.E.D.

By far, it was the hardest teaching position that I have had in my career but I was committed to those young men. I was determined for them to meet with success. Each student had a three inch binder that contained “their story” and it was shocking and heartbreaking to read.  How could these young men only read on an early elementary level? How had they fallen through the school system and not have received effective interventions earlier? How had they made it this far despite the obstacles they faced? Could someone have prevented their behaviors from escalating to the point that they were expelled? What could have changed their trajectory so that learning differently didn’t mean failing school? And most importantly, how could we help set them on a path to a vocation that could become independent and productive citizens?

That first year was also my last year in that type of educational setting because it was too overwhelming for me. As a compassionate and empathetic educator the experience of working with a group of teens who were in the midst of trauma was too much for me. I remember telling my principal how I was feeling at mid-year; he nodded, asked me to finish out the year, and said this field has a high turnover rate because most educators want to fix problems that they can’t.

That first teaching position helped me realize that my strengths were in working with younger children. I wanted to be an early childhood teacher that help start children’s trajectory in a different way. I wanted to learn how to teach ALL children to read and to honor that different ways of learning could be supported in a traditional school.

Luckily near the conclusion of that school year, I was accepted into a program with the Western Virginia Public Education Consortium that was offering a ‘career switcher’ Teacher Preparation Program. The Virginia Department of Education recognized that people like me who already had a Bachelor’s degree and a fiery desire to make a difference in children’s lives needed a pathway to teacher licensure. This was a godsend because going back for an education degree was not financially possible for me at the time, and the career switcher program was fully paid for by the Virginia DOE.

For one month in July 2001, I was able to live on campus at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia and take part in an intensive training to become a provisionally licensed elementary teacher. Later that summer I was hired as a first grade teacher in a public school, was assigned a mentor teacher, and received support throughout my first year from the Consortium to ensure that I was able to effectively teach younger children. My first year in public school I began to take graduate level classes in order to become a reading specialist and was determined to ensure that every child I work with finds reading to be a joyful experience. One of my foundational beliefs is that when a child knows how to read an entire universe opens up in front of them, and that there is freedom and knowledge awaiting us all when we read.

I often think back to Minnick and the lessons I learned from that group of young men. I don’t know where life took them, but I carry with me a piece of their story. Each of those young men’s stories are important, and each of the children and adult students that I work with have important stories to share. When we share our stories, whether written or orally, we create connections and foster an environment built on respect.

I know when I look at my resume that the one year at Minnick had the greatest impact on my career. As educators, we have the power to influence the trajectory of our student’s lives when we don’t let any of them slip through the cracks. As early childhood educators, we truly set the foundation and groundwork for the rest of their academic lives so it is both and honor and responsibility that we advocate for what children need.

Analysis of the Vermont Northern Lights Career Development Center

 

In Vermont, early childhood and after school professionals have a tremendous resource in the Vermont Northern Lights Career Development Center. Northern Lights, as it is commonly referred to, is an organization that continues to evolve and change in order to provide current and relevant information for professional development and career planning. The organization strives to be “consistent, accessible, and comprehensive in meeting the needs of early childhood and afterschool professionals from entry to advanced levels” (VNLCDC p.1). There are a wide variety of tools and resources available through the Northern Lights’ website so at first it may seem confusing and cumbersome to new users. I think the best way to understand the wealth of materials on this site is to spend time searching around and reading the content. Luckily, Northern Lights is also staffed by a great team of individuals, so you can reach out and discuss your questions with a person if you cannot find what you are looking for on the website. As of January 2018, there is a new “Northern Lights at CCV Team” which is comprised of the director, managers, and local resource advisors who are all working towards creating a strong workforce for Vermont’s young children. This team is located around the state, so individuals can also make in person appointments to meet their local resource advisors which is a wonderful tool for individuals who are weary of technology.

The primary purpose of Northern Lights is to serve as a hub to provide resources for the variety of individuals in the field of early childhood and after school within the state of Vermont. As seen on the home page of the website, there are navigation tools for three main areas: career pathways, training and coursework, and roles. By clicking into any of these three broad categories web users will be directed to another page that further explains the topic and provides a wealth of links and printable resources. For individuals exploring their role as a director it would be imperative to read the Vermont Competencies for Program Directors (VNLCDC p.2) and use it as a self-assessment for all five knowledge areas the document outlines.

It is important to understand that Northern Lights works with many different partners and aims to unify and enhance the professional development system, but Northern Lights does NOT provide every resource so professionals will need to know where to go for that information as well. Northern Lights does not list current professional development opportunities, but there is a link on site that will take you to the Bright Futures Information System (BFIS) Course Calendar. Northern Lights also offers links to BFIS so individuals can see their quality credentialing and program accounts, where their professional development is documented and credentials are stored. Northern Lights is not ‘licensing’ so individuals need to go to Vermont Child Development Division to read the child care licensing regulations that pertain to their program. Lastly, for early childhood teachers who are licensed through the Agency of Education, such as myself, there is another set of parameters for maintain a teaching license that is outside of the scope of Northern Lights. Efforts are underway to ensure that less duplication is happening so that licensed teachers are not having to submit course work and their IPDP to both BFIS and the AOE, which saves professionals time.

            Northern Lights is an online tool that serves a critical component in the career success of individuals who work in both early childhood and after school programs. My suggestion is that individuals should begin by looking at the Vermont Career Ladder img_0619(https://northernlightscdc.org/career-pathways/early-childhood-pathways/). Individuals can begin at any level on the career ladder depending on their prior coursework, credentials, degrees, and years of experience. A career pathway provides professionals with defined routes to improve their qualifications, recognize professional possibilities that exist in the workforce, and assist individuals in being compensated appropriately (Sciarra 45). This ladder serves as a tool for an individual to use to navigate how to progress in their career, which I feel can be empowering to someone just beginning in the field. At first glance it seems like a lot of work to climb the levels of the ladders, but the Child Development Division offers bonuses ranging from $100 to $1200 dollars as recognition of the hard work it takes to attain a level within the ladder. Program administrators need to be familiar with this process since they will have many staff members who have questions and concerns. It is important to note that climbing this career ladder increase the salary potential for individuals and therefore is worth investing the time and energy into attaining higher levels. For programs who participate in STARS the career ladder is tied into the arena of Staff Qualifications so the higher level that staff members attain, the higher the score for the program.

Over the course of the last eight years working in the early childhood field in Vermont, I have used the Northern Lights website in a variety of ways. Over this time the content and clarity of the information has changed and evolved. I have occasionally emailed or called to ask clarifying questions for myself, my staff, or my college students and have found the Northern Lights staff to be very responsive and helpful. Most often I go to the website to refer to the career ladders and to access the core competencies. I find that the core competency documents to be well written and great resources to answering questions. Northern Lights has also served me as an Approved Instructor, with password protected portions of the website pages that allow me to access course materials and resources when teaching the Fundamentals course.

In summary, I feel that Northern Lights is a great resource and will continue to refer to it for professional growth and learning. It is worth investing the time and energy to be familiar with the layout and content for both myself as professional and as a resource to share with my staff.

 

Works Cited

Sciarra, D. J., Lynch, E. M., Adams, S. M., & Dorsey, A. G. Developing and Administering a Child Care and Education Program. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2016

Vermont North Lights Career Development Center. Competencies for Program Directors of Early Childhood and AfterSchool Programs. 2009 Retrieved on January 21, 2018 – https://northernlightscdc.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/competencies_program_directors.pdf

Teacher Burn Out

For me, one of the hardest parts of being a school teacher was that I gave nearly all of my energy to my job, saved a little bit for my family, and was left with only a few drops for myself. Most evenings after tucking my own children into bed I would sit on the couch, often with an unhealthy snack, and either finished up something for school, answered all the emails that accumulated or continued designing a workshop that I was creating. This pace of work was becoming unsustainable, but I felt like my ‘ticket out of the classroom’ meant creating a new career before I called it quits.

balancing rock formation
Photo by Tina Nord on Pexels.com
It should have been easy for me to see, but I was developing a serious case of ‘teacher burn out’. I was burning the candle at both ends and it was becoming hard to manage. Last spring,  I began feeling swallowed up by my teaching job and felt like I wasn’t able to do enough. In fact, the more that I gave to my job the more I felt was expected of me. The more I questioned things that were happening in my school, the more I felt that my school did not care about it.
As I have shared my personal ‘teacher burn out’ story with close friends nearly all nod in agreement. Regardless of their profession almost all can relate to my struggle and many applaud me for having the courage to leave.
Telling my story though feels vulnerable because I feel like if I had been a stronger person I could have weathered the storm better. Somehow I still feel selfish in deciding to walk away from a profession that I love, but deep inside I know that I could no longer stay. I feel like I gave up on the kids or my colleagues, but I also know that I wasn’t able to continue to give without completely depleting my personal well.
It’s easy to say that we know that we need to prioritize ourselves or take care of our colleagues but in my experience teachers are notorious for being such good care givers that we fail at being care receivers.
I realize that I need to find the courage to pursue a new a career path and to get comfortable even when there isn’t a paycheck being direct deposited into my account. I feel called to help others prevent teacher burn out, to offer wellness and meaningful stress management tools that all of us can use. I hope to create both online-communities for teachers who are reaching out for resources for personal wellness & creativity. I also feel called to going back to my first career, in creating in-person opportunities for  holistic health, such as offering retreats, workshops, and community based wellness services. I feel the need to advocate for balance and wellness in our schools and community. I am also exploring how to offer teaching artist residencies that focus on creativity & wellness for both students and staff. All of these divergent ideas will converge into a rewarding career path…I am sure of it!
One of the books that I am currently reading is Brene Brown’s, “Dare to Lead”. Her approach to full-hearted leadership and being brave is just the message I need right now. Brene’s take on how vulnerability can be used as an asset seems to be the opposite of what we are taught makes a good business person. I am trudging through that vulnerable space and trying to figure out how being a full-hearted person can become one of my super powers instead of a liability.
Though my business plan is not all sorted out, and I don’t quite know where this adventure is leading me, I have a renewed confidence in myself. I know that this is not just a ‘hobby’ and that I will need to figure out how to make an livable income. However, I know I am moving in the right direction, have gratitude for all those who support me, and I am committed to keep showing up to figure it out!

 “Vulnerability is not winning or losing. It’s having the courage to show up when you can’t control the outcome.” ~ Brene Brown 

Willow Tree Wisdom

 

My fondest early childhood memory was time I spent in our willow tree. It was a grand weeping willow with branches that nearly touched the ground and had perfect climbing branches. I remember needing a milk crate to pull myself up onto the first limb, but once I was up there I could escape to my own little world.

The rustle of the leaves, the light greenish yellow leaves, the aromas of nature all around, the texture of the bark…I can vividly remember that tree and often escaped there, even now when I feel worried I bring it back into my memory. Perched atop an old weeping willow is my ‘happy place’.

As a child, I often played school while perched in the tree and my imagination soared. I could hear my older brothers playing in other parts of the yard or across the street with friends. I could hear my mother working in our greenhouse or in the yard, but more than anything I wanted the solitude that my willow tree offered. In my tree I could forget the dilapidated house that we lived in, forget how awkward I felt when I was around other children, and best of all, in my willow tree perch I didn’t need to talk to anyone.

As fate would have it the name of town that we lived in was Willow Grove, and I remember thinking that sitting high up in a willow tree in a town of the same name must have qualified it as some sort of magical place. 

Now as an educator I am often at professional trainings and the speaker asks us to reflect on our fondest memory and to consider why that particular memory sticks. I remember when we first moved to that house that it was in shambles. The basement was filled with trash from the previous owner, there was no running water, the floors were creaky, the walls unfinished, and no heating. I can remember my mom’s optimism and vision of what the house would become but I knew that she hated it as much as I did. Though we made slow improvements to the house it never felt like to me a home, so whenever possible I remember wanting to spend time outdoors. The willow tree was an escape.

The first year living in that house I was in first grade, and I remember riding the school bus and trying not to cry but by the time I got to school I would lock myself in the girls bathroom and sob and rock until someone forced me to come out. School was dreadful and hard. I remember being pulled out of class for intensive speech therapy and was certain that I was the stupidest child in the class. I also remember slowly making progress and slowly feeling a bit better. I remember my mom meeting with my primary grade teachers and talking with them about why I was so fearful.

We lived in that house for four years and though many of my memories of those years are blurry and painful I remember my willow tree as a place of solitude and escape. When it was time to move I remember thinking how glad I was to leave the hell-hole of a house behind, but my heart ached to say good-bye to my willow tree.

As a child I felt that when I was in my “teaching tree” I was wise, powerful, and joyous. I didn’t need words to communicate and I could just be who I was. It was then that I discovered Mother Nature could be my most trusted teacher and I began to listen to the wind to help my world make sense. As we left that house for the last time the willow branches waved goodbye, but I knew that another one of nature’s glorious ‘sit spots’ awaited me. And luckily every new home that I have moved to has had some “glorious-just-perfect-for-me” place to sit and listen.

My home is now well insulated, built with sturdy walls, and most days relatively tidy…but I still continue to prioritize heading outside to a favorite ‘sit spot’ to listen to nature’s guidance. 

 

The Sky Isn’t Falling: Being Present for Children

 

img_5404One of my favorite childhood stories was “Chicken Little” and as an early childhood teacher it’s in my top 10 read aloud books. I love this story because of the dramatics, the voices that I can use, and the how a simple misunderstanding puts everyone into a frenzy. Do you remember the story?

“The sky is falling, the sky is falling. I must run for my life.” And the heroine of the story, Chicken Little” is off to let the king know that something horrible has happened when, in fact, it was just an acorn that had hit her on the head.

In this classic tale, Chicken Little didn’t take time to “Stop and Think”.

Chicken Little didn’t think to reach up on top of her head to discover the source the thump. If she had she would have found an acorn and not the whole sky.

I love dissecting this story with children and talking about cause and effect. I want children to realize that sometimes things will happen to them, like a child accidentally bonking them on the head with a ball, and that it is our choice in how we react to the event. It is affirming for them to know yes, you got a bonk on your head, but why did that occur. Is it that your classmate meant to harm you or did their aim go astray when tossing the ball somewhere else? We get to teach children to reflect BEFORE they react, which really is a life lesson that we all could use.

My favorite version of this classic tale is by Rebecca and Ed Emberley because the illustrations are vivid and the dialogue is engaging. In this version ~ “Chicken Little was not the brightest chicken in the coop. He was very excitable and prone to foolishness.” This is a great phrase to explore with children, what does it mean to be “prone to foolishness”? In this version her friends are described “being witless”  and joining in without any further questions and without a plan. Lucky Ducky is described as “not wanting to be left out”, which opens the conversation about actions we take because others are doing something. In the Emberley version there is quite a plot twist at the end that is an age appropriate conversation to have with children about following someone without question.

Reading several versions of Chicken Little helps open up a discussion about how sometimes we think that ‘the sky is falling’ or some other really bad thing is happening. But if we take time to “Stop and think” and to “talk with a grown-up” that our worries might be really simple things to fix.

In most versions of this tale the main characters decide that they need to go on a journey to tell the King that there is an emergency that requires his urgent attention. This group of friends band together based on Chicken Little’s account of the incident. She had “seen it with her own eyes, heard it with her own ears, and felt it hit her head”. The sense of community that all her friends, who happen to have great names, (Henny Penny, Ducky Lucky, Cocky Locky, Goosey Loosey) help her step before the king and announce that she has discovered that the sky is falling.

After reading a couple of versions the children realize that in fact the world is not in a state of crisis. It is an acorn and not the atmosphere caving in upon itself. I try to drive home the point that if Chicken Little and her friends took the the time to “Stop and Think” they would have likely discovered the acorn themselves. (How empowering!) Or if they were that concerned that they could go to a grown up in their life and they would have helped them realize what was happening without needing to go on such a long journey.

So much valuable teaching from a classic tale!

With my grown-up students that I reach through leading professional development and community college there are also lessons for adults. In modern day, social media driven society, think of the many times that a perceived threat is magnified by a group of well being friends.  The hint of a scandalous story or revelation of a vague post by a friend leaves us wondering.  The quakes of social media with Twitter wars, viral videos, and Facebook feuds that suck us in and we spend way too much time on a screen journey. Isn’t this much like Chicken Little….are we running in a circle trying to help restore social order?

Society is defined as when two or more humans connect and interact. Those interactions are so much more important in real life, and our sense of belonging comes from working together.  As parents and care providers we need to focus on ‘social order’ of our homes or our classrooms which is where we have a meaningful impact. If we are constantly distracted with our screens and technologies are we really able to connect with our children, spouses, coworkers, and friends?

For people who work with children a daily basis it is so important to stay present in the NOW. Listening and interacting with the children in our care. Helping them to develop their own sense of belonging and to find their voice to communicate how they are feeling. Assisting children in expressing their own unique creativity through engaged PLAY. Honoring children’s stories and helping them to discover who they are. Offering learning environments built on mutual respect, safety, and the belief that every child matters. To do this work we must be in the present moment, and NOT on a screen.

As the adults in the learning environment we need to leave our grown up conversations about politics, current events and judgements at home. When doing the important work of caring for children we need to focus on building empathy and creating safe haven. We need to realize that TIME is the most important resource that we have, so we bring our best self into our programs and we focus on the children and families that we serve.

Though someone else might think the “sky is falling” and is alerting the world via social media, we do not need to like, retweet, or comment on it while we are working. Instead, we need to be fully present…exploring the acorns alongside the children!

 

 

Tech in Early Education?

img_6936

When asked about the role of technology in early childhood classrooms I get this little churn in the pit of my stomach. I have not embraced the need for screens for young children, and with the limited hours that my preschoolers are with me I want to offer them the very best that I can. So I have graciously declined having more than one iPad in my classroom and have removed all the desktop computers so the floor space could be used for (dare I say it) a learning center that is more developmentally appropriate. I also think in terms of economics…how many quality learning tools could I purchase with the money it would cost to buy a class set of iPads.

A few weeks ago in the grocery store a local early childhood educator that I know stopped to chat and told me she was working on her Master’s research project. Her topic of focus what technology in early ed and she was in the midst of reading 15 current research articles and soon would decide what her research would focus on.

I literally started to bite my lower lip. Positive self talk began in brain, “Be respectful, don’t jump up on soap box. Let her talk. Maybe you are getting old and grumpy, perhaps her research view might be more up to date.”

As we chatted I politely said that though other ECE providers are excited to learn that they will have 1:1 iPads for all the children in their programs, I have successfully held out. I mentioned wanting to spend more time in nature and to develop the indoor learning environment so it was play-rich, and that I believed there was no role in preschoolers needing to go to kindergarten with iPad skills.

The conversation ended politely but I thought maybe I should have a stronger opinion. Maybe I should voice my concern about the glare, the zoned-out-ed-ness, or the addiction that most all of us face with our smartphones, iPads, and laptops. Maybe I should question how our disconnected society of social media has trickled it’s way down to toddlers. Our passive consumerism now begins before our babies talk. YIKES!

So the next time someone asks my opinion I am going to reverse the question and ask them, “What kind of tasks that the child is engaged with on the screen?” I will listen attentively, and then my follow up question will be, “So is the app sort of like a digital worksheet?” Likely most conversations will end there and we will agree to disagree.

I know in my bones (and valid research supports) the fact that worksheets are NOT best practice for learners of any age, and especially more so for our youngest learners. Most apps are worksheets in disguise with cartoon characters, bright lights, things the move fast, and sounds. So just as we had to stand up and push back against spending our day completing workbooks with 3-5 year olds we need to push back against the invasion of technology.

We know that ample research proves the importance of PLAY in early childhood. We should no longer feel the need to defend our practice of creating uninterrupted blocks of time for children to play. Child-directed play where the learner gets to choose which part of the learning environment to spend their time. We need to be ready to protect play and we need to take an active in our role of explaining the value of play to our stakeholders.

This is where the one lonely iPad comes in handy. Through digital story telling, documentation panels, and/or weekly newsletters with photographs we can use the power of technology to make learning visible. We can show our administration the importance of play and demonstrate to them what the children are learning while engrossed in deep and meaningful play. Many administrators where preschool is located in a PreK-8 school have limited understanding of early childhood and developmentally appropriate practice. As professionals we can take what we know and show them through photos or videos how our children are learning and growing in all domains.

So the next time I am asked about the best use of technology in an early childhood setting I won’t have a queasy feeling in my stomach. I’ve got a boiled down one minute speech, which by the way you are more than welcome to borrow, steal, cut and paste, make into a meme, or sing from the mountaintops.

“The most powerful use of technology in an early childhood classroom is in capturing the action of ‘kids at play’. Through video, photos, or digital storytelling we can illustrate for parents and stakeholders the many ways that children grow through play. We can harness the power of technology to make visible the deep learning and engagement that happens every day in our early childhood programs.” ~April Zajko

 

For my college student friends – further reading from national organizations related to the topic:

NAEYC Position Statement on Technology and Media

American Academy of Pediatrics – The Power of Play 

Young Children in the Digital Age: A Parent’s Guide by Nancy Carlsson-Paige, Ed.D.

Nature-Based Play and Learning: A Literature Review